Sex rings and child prostitution involves power structures which actively recruit vulnerable children and youth.
Children used in sex rings are often subjected to terribly cruel and sadistic physical abuse in addition to sexual abuse. There is profound trauma associated with being used in child prostitution and child sex rings.
The impact of the abuse can be life-long, often resulting in emotional and physical problems as well as behavioural problems such: as prostitution, street youth, crime and homelessness.
Survivors often lose a sense of personal power and have difficulty making good, choices as adults.
For the survivor who was abused as a child by a group of adults there is no safe place. People “out there” do not offer safety and protection; survivors always feel isolated, powerless, helpless.
The survivor’s adult body carries significant internal stress as a result of repeated early abuse. The high degree of stress causes an inordinate amount of physical and medical problems for survivors.
Memories of profound abuse can be recovered inside and outside of therapy.
Child prostitution and child sex rings exist in all countries and in all the major cities in North America. Even in some smaller communities there can be highly active and organized child sex rings.
Discussion – Child Prostitution and Child Sex Rings
Identification/Refinement of Key Themes:
- A lack of public awareness, education and outreach.
- Myths about sexual abuse, sex rings and a connection to prostitution.
- Impact on an individual’s life – the survivor’s perspective.
- Why is society in denial, and how is this accomplished?
- How do pedophiles maintain their groups. How can they be identified? How to they propagate these activities?
- The reality of child sex rings and prostitution:
Impact of abuse:
- Child sex rings and prostitution happens to children/individuals who are vulnerable, perhaps related to institutions as clients.
- Individuals from abusive situations are more likely to become involved in sex rings or prostitution than those who are not.
- When children are soliciting, there is no choice. Even when adults are soliciting, there are no choices.
Myths about the impact of abuse:
- There is a life-long impact resulting in internal (emotional, physical) and external (behavioural) problems.
- Dissociative disorder is real. Memory loss from trauma is real and can be recovered both outside and inside of therapy.
- Denial exists on the part of the abused and abuser.
- Survivors have no sense of personal power, and are not capable of functioning as an adult and making good choices.
- Survivors are perceived as unable to function, and allowances are made for their dysfunction instead of a search for the cause of such dysfunction.
- How recovered memories affect an individual’s life and life choices.
- Sense of predetermined “fate” to continue in an abusive/abused capacity.
- Memories played out in symbolic forms such as disease, abuse of others or choice of an abuser as a partner, alcoholic or drug addiction, life long impact.
- Suicidal thoughts tend to be more common among survivors.
- Impact of sex rings/prostitution on survivors: a complete sense of isolation; the message to the abused child is that society itself is responsible/corrupt; there is no “out there”, no safe place, no rescuer.
Why is society in denial, and how is this accomplished?
- Society is associated with the government/media.
- There is profit in denial. Abusers have a vested interest in denial and comfort.
- Comfort, vested interest and both conscious and unconscious guilt.
- Those who have not experienced this type of trauma have difficulty in understanding higher pain.
- Often those who attack survivors are often in denial about abusers and abuse.
- There are safety issues related to a lack of education on this topic.
There is a lack of public awareness of sex rings. There are many myths and a lack of perspective on the part of the public.
Prostitution and its connections to child abuse are unclear. The myth of prostitution is that they “do it because they love it”. Society is in denial – offers closure without examining the underlying issues behind prostitution. There is a lack of education around the issue of prostitution/abuse in the school system at every level.
The myth of pedophilia and child prostitution is that “young boys choose to participate.” How do pedophiles organize and sustain their activities? Does the anonymity of the internet propagate these activities? Is a child sex ring a child used by a number of abusers? This is worse than the abuse of a child by a caregiver, because no bond is formed. The child is totally isolated. His or her abuser has no power within the group. Survivors often develop strong defenses to cope, and may have very high pain thresholds. When the abuse occurs outside the family environs, the memories are often more difficult to access.
Memories may be triggered by specific words. There is often a lack of acknowledgement of the abuse by the abuser. A defense mechanism develops – the child is “special”. The photographic aspect of this type of abuse can encourage exhibitionistic behaviour.
The connection between prostitution and abuse is so obvious. Why is the public surprised by this? Survivors are vulnerable and often prone to being “seduced” into pornography and prostitution. Survivors also often feel that they are “fated” to continue in an abused capacity.
Myth of Suppression:
People think that it is possible to bury memories without affecting the individual concerned. It is easier to blame the victim than the abuser. The survivor becomes “objectified” and develops a strong sense of denial as a coping mechanism. This is the reason behind the denial of this type of abuse by society. People are more concerned about protecting their own comfort level than protecting the comfort levels of children. People do not want to confront the issues. “This type of thing doesn’t happen in Canada.” Social service agencies, law enforcement staff and others working in this field become desensitized, because the truth is so horrific. As well, the male identity in our culture encourages suppression of these issues, and the majority of institutions tend to be “male centred” in terms of their operational framework.
The Maple Leaf Gardens issue did generate a public outcry. However, this was bothersome, because of the media identification with the “hockey icon” image as a vehicle to address abuse issues. This disregards other survivors who are not associated with a “celebrity association”. There are also issues associated with validation and celebrity endorsement. Another difficulty is presented by the incorrect association of abuse with lower economic class structures. The message is most often dependent upon the messenger for clarity and accuracy.
References On Child Pornography And The Internet:
“Fighting The Child Sex Trade. Modest Efforts To Save Some Children: Safe Haven.” World Press Review, November 1996, vol. 43 no. 11 pcover, 11 (English).
“Fighting The Child Sex Trade: Putting Abuse in the Spotlight. International Pressure Can Help”. World Press Review, November 1996, vol. 43 no. 11 pcover, 7-8 (English).
“Saving Children From Sex: Rich Countries’ Laws Won’t Stop Poor Countries’ Pedophiles.” Economist, August 31, 2020, vol. 340 no. 7981, p. 17.
Aanandalskshmi, S., (1991), The female child in a family setting. In: Indian Journal of Social Work, LII, 1: 29-36.
Able-Peterson, Trudee. Children of the Evening. New York, N.Y.: Putnam, 1981.
Allen, Charlotte Vale. Daddy’s Girl. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1998.
Allsebrook, A,. & Swift, A., 1989, Broken Promise, London: Hodder and Stoughton.
Alston, P., 1994, The best interests principle, in Alston, P., (ed.), The Best Interests of the Child: Reconciling culture and human rights, Oxford, Clarendon Press, (1-25).
Agnelli, S., 1986, Street Children: a growing urban tragedy, London, Weidenfeld & Nicolson.
Anglican Synod of Australia: Social Responsibilities Committee, 1993, Pleasure in Paradise? Sydney: Anglican General Synod.
Agroforestry Report, Agroforestry Basic Health Collective, n.d. A situational analysis report on girls trafficking in Sindhupalchowk, Mahankal and Inchowk Village Development Committee, Nepal: Agroforestry Basic Health Cooperative.
Alves-Milho, E., 1977, El problema de la prostitucion en Iquitos, Dissertation for Batchelor of Social Work, Catholic University of Liam.
Armstrong, Louise. Kiss Daddy Goodnight: Ten Years Later. New York: Pocket Books, 1987.
Arnold, K., 1978, The whore in Peru: The splitting of women into good and bad and the isolation of the prostitute, in Lipshitz, S., (ed.) Tearing the Veil: Essays on Femininity, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul
Asia Partnership for Human Development. 1985. Awake. Sydney: APHD.
Asia Partnership for Human Development.1992, Awake 2, Philippines: APHD.
Asia Watch, 1993, A Modern Form of Slavery Trafficking of Burmese Women and Girls into Brothels in Thailand, New York: Human Rights Watch.
Bahni, 1989, Prostitution with religious sanction: The devadasi problem, Venkatasani, Jagnini and the Basavi cult, New Delhi: Joint Women’s Project.
Axworthy, Lloyd. Canadian Speeches, October 1996, vol. 10 no. 6, p. 33-5.
Baizerman, M., Thompson, J, Stafford-White, K. 1979. Adolescent Prostitution. Children Today 8 (5), (20-24).
Barse, S., (1991), Rights of the girl child, in: Indian Journal of Social Work, LII, 1 (97 104).
Bell, L, 1987, Good Girls/Bad Girls: Feminists and Sex Trade Workers Talk Face to Face Toronto: The Women’s Press.
Black, M., 1991, Philippines: Children of the Runaway Cities. Florence: UNICEF.
Black, M.,1994, Home Truths, in New Internationalist, February 1994.
Black, M.,1995. In the Twilight Zone, Child workers in the hotel, tourism and catering industry, Geneva: International Labour Office.
Blanchet, T., 1996, Lost innocence, stolen childhood, Dhaka: The University Press Limited.
Bond, T., 1981, Boy Prostitution in Sri Lanka, Colombo: Terre des Hommes,
Bridel, R., & Colomp, J.M., 1983, Child prostitution in Brazil, Oslo, Redd Barna.
Budhaghosa, 1923-31, Vishuddhimagga: the path of purity, Translation by Pe Maung Tin, London, Pali Text Society.
Cairo, A.I., 1967, Prostitucion en Lima, in Seminario, La familia, Infancia y juventud en el desarollo nacional, Lima: UNICEF.
Campagna, D. S. & Poffenberger, D.L. 1988 The Sexual Trafficking in Children.Dover, Massachusetts: Auburn House Publishing Company.
Cambodian Women’s Development Association, 1994, Prostitution Survey Result,. Phnom Penh: CWDA.
Care International in Cambodia, 1994, Men are Gold, Women are Cloth: A report on the potential for HIV/AIDS spread in Cambodia and implications for HIV/AIDS education, Phnom Penh: Care International
Carman, J.B. & Marglin, F.A., 1985, Purity and auspiciousness in Indian Society, International Studies in Sociology and Social Anthropology (43), Leiden. E. J. Brill.
Centre for the Protection of Children’s Rights. 1991. The Trafficking of Children for Prostitution in Thailand. The Northern Connection – Cutting the Supply Lines. Bangkok: Unpublished manuscript.
Chidley, Joe. “Fighting the Child Sex Trade: New Focus On An Ancient Evil”. World Press Review, November 1996 vol. 43 no. 11 pcover, 6-7 (English).
Constantine L., and Martinson, F.M., (eds.), 1981, Children and Sex: New Findings, New Perspectives, Boston: Little, Brown and Company
Cusack, Jim. “Fighting The Child Sex Trade: Murky World of Internet Porn. The ‘Orchid Club’ Shakes Up the Law”. World Press Review, November 1996 vol. 43 no. 11, pcover, 8-9 (English).
Dallape, F., 1988, An experience with street children, Nairobi, Undugu Society.
Davidson, H., & Loken, G., 1987, Child Pornography and Prostitution: Background and Legal Analysis, USA: National Centre for Missing and Exploited Children.
Deisher, R., Eisner, V., and Sulzbacher, S., 1969, The young Male Prostitute, Paediatrics 43 (6).
Delaney, C., 1991, The seed and the soil: Gender and cosmology in Turkish Society, Berkley, University of California Press.
Dickey, Christopher. “Europe: Death of Innocents: An Atrocity Highlights the Child-Sex Trade. Newsweek, September 2 1996, vol. 128 no. 10, p. 51.
Dimenstein, G., 1992, Meninas do noite, Editora Atica, S.A.
Dodge, C.P. & Raundalen, M., 1987, (eds.), War, Violence and Children in Uganda, Oslo, University of Oslo Press.
Douglas, M., 1994. Purity and Danger. Routledge: London
Donovan, K. 1994. Hidden From View – an exploration of the little known world of young male prostitutes in Great Britain and Europe with recommendations for an effective interagency approach, Birmingham: West Midlands Police
ECPAT. n.d. Report on International Conference to End Child Prostitution in Asian Tourism Bangkok: Unpublished manuscript. 1992-5. Newsletters Bangkok: ECPAT.
ECPAT Philippines, 1994, Tourism and Child Prostitution in Cebu, Manila: ECPAT.
ECTWT (Ecumenical Coalition on Third World Tourism), 1983, Tourism, Prostitution, Development, Bangkok: ECTWT.
ECTWT (Ecumenical Coalition on Third World Tourism), 1990, Caught in Modern Slavery: Tourism and Child Prostitution in Asia, Bangkok: ECTWT.
Ennew, J. 1986. The Sexual Exploitation of Children. Cambridge: Polity.
Ennew, J.1994, Defining the girl child: sexuality, controil and development, in VENA: Special issue on The Girl Child, Leiden.
Ennew, J.1996 (forthcoming), Difficult circumstances: defining ‘street children’ in Africa, Africa Insight
Ennew, J. & Miljeteig, P., 1996 (forthcoming), Indicators for children’s rights: progress report on a project, in International Journal of Children’s Rights.
Ennew, J., & Viquez, M., 1996, Borrador: Guia para la recoplilacion de datos sobre los derechos de los ninos/as y adolescentes en Centroamerica, San Jose, Costa Rica: UNICEF & IIDH.
Epstein, Jack. “Fighting The Child Sex Trade: ‘Maybe the Worst in the World’”. World Press Review, November 1996 vol. 43 no. 11 pcover, 10 (English).
F. Christiane, 1981. H: Autobiography of a Child Prostitute and Heroin Addict. London: Corgi
Fernand-Laurent, J., 1983, Report of the Special Rapporteur on the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and the Exploitation of the Prostitution of Others, Geneva: United Nations.
Fernand-Laurent, J., 1992, The mass media and sexual exploitation, in Children Worldwide, 19 (2), p. 36.
Fernea E, (ed.), 1985, Women and Family in the Middle East: New Voices of Change, Austin: University of Texas Press.
Finkelhor, D., 1979 Sexually Victimised Children, New York: Free Press.
Foundation for Women, 1988, Voices of Thai Women, Bangkok: Foundation for Women.
Galanter, M., 1989, Law and Society In Modern India, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Gearin, M. E., (n.d) Child Prostitution in the Philippines: A Socio-Cultural Perspective, Unpublished manuscript.
Gibsonainyette, I., Templer D.I., Brown R., Veaco L., 1988, Adolescent Female Prostitutes, in Archives Of Sexual Behavior, 17 (5) (431-438).
Gilmore, D.D., 1987, Honor and Shame and the Unity of the Mediterranea, Washington, D.C.: American Anthropological Association.
Glauser, B., 1990, Street children, deconstructing a a concept, in James, A. and Prout, A., (eds.), Constructing and reconstructing childhood, Brighton: Falmer Press.
Goonasekere, S., & Abeyratne, 1986, Child labour and child prostitution in Sri Lanka, in Report of the Conference on Child Labour and Prostitutes in the Philippines, Manila: Law Asia.
Korea:Justice and Peace Commission.
Guest, P., 1993, Guesstimating the Unestimateable: The Number of Child Prostitutes in Thailand, Bangkok: Institute for Population and Social Research, Mahidol University.
Gueye, A-K., 1995, Bibliographie annote sur l’enfance, Dakar, CODESRIA.
Hall, C.M., 1992, Sex Tourism in South-East Asia, in Harrison, D., (ed.), Tourism and the Less Developed Countries, London: Bellhaven
Hantrakul, S., 1983, Prostitution in Thailand, Paper presented to the Women in Asia
Workshop, Monash University, Melbourne.
Holland. P., 1991, What is a child? London: Virago.
Holy, L., 1991, Religion and Custom in a Muslim Society, The Berti of Sudan, Cambrideg: Cambridge University Press.
Human Rights Watch, 1995, Rape for Profit, New York: Human Rights Watch.
Jenkins, P., 1992, Intimate Enemies: Moral Panics in Contemporary Great Britai,. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.
Jessome, Phonse. Somebody’s Daughter: Inside the Halifax/Toronto Pimping Ring. Halifax, N.S.: Nimbus, 1996.
Johnson, Joan. Teen Prostitution. New York: F. Watts, 1992.
Jones, G. and Wallace, C., 1992., Youth, Family and Citizenship, Buckingham: Open University Press
Joseph, C., 1995, Scarlet Wounding: Issues Of Child Prostitution, in Journal Of Psychohistory 23 (1) (2-17).
Jubilee Action Trust, n.d., Child Prostitution in Thailand, London: Jubilee Trust.
Jubilee Campaign, 1992, Street Children in the Philippines, Surrey: Jubilee Campaign.
Kent, G., 1992, Little foreign bodies: International dimensions of child prostitution, in Freeman, M., & Veeran, P., (eds.), The ideologies of children’s rights, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, (323-346).
La Fontaine, J. S. 1985, Initiation, Cambridge, CUP.
La Fontaine, J. S. 1990. Child Sexual Abuse. Cambridge: Polity Press
Landau, Elaine. On the Streets: The Lives of Adolescent Prostitutes. New York: J. Messner, 1987.
Leahy. T 1996. Sex and the Age of Consent: the Ethical Issues. Social Analysis 39 (1).
Lee, M. & O’Brien, R. 1995. The Game’s Up: redefining child prostitution London: Children’s Society
Lee, W., 1991, Prostitution and Tourism in South East Asia, in Redclift, N., & Sinclair, M., (eds.), Working Women: International Perspectives on Labour and Gender Ideology, London: Routledge.
Lee-Wright, P. 1990. Child Slaves. London: Earthscan Publications.
Lie. J., 1985, The Transformation Of Sexual Work In 20th-Century Korea, in Gender & Society, 9, (3) (310-327).
Lloyd, R,. 1977, Playlands: a study of boy prostitution, London, 1977.
Loewenson, R., & Chikamba, M., 1994 (research coordinators), Sexual abuse of children in Zimbabwe, unpublished report, Harare: Training and Research Support Centre.
Lorayes, A. (n.d.) Child Prostitution: The Tribe of Lost Souls. Unpublished manuscript.
Lowman, J. 1987,Taking Young Prostitutes Seriously, In Canadian Review Of Sociology And Anthropology, 24, (1) (99-116).
MacInnes, Ross A. Children in the Game: Child Prostitution, Strategies for Recovery. Calgary: Street Teams, 1998.
Marglin, F.A., 1985, Wives of the god king: the rituals of devadasis of Puri, Oxford: Oxfrod University Press.
Melton, G.B., 1991, Preserving the dignity of children around the world, in Child Abuse and Neglect, 15, (343-350).
Meunier, J., 1977, Les gamines de Bogota, Paris.
Mernessi, F., 1975, Beyond the veil: Male and female dynamics in a modern Muslim society, New York, Schenkman.
Miller, A., 1985, Thou shalt not be aware: society’s betrayal of the child, London, Pluto.
Mccaughy, C.H., & Hou, C., 1994, Family Affiliation and Prostitution in a Cultural-Context: Career Onsets Of Taiwanese Prostitutes, in Archives Of Sexual Behavior, 23, (3) (251-265).
Miralao, V., Carlos, C., & Santos, A., 1990, Women Entertainers in Angeles and Olongapo, Manila: Rainbow.
Morris, L., 1994, Dangerous Classes: The Underclass and Social Citizenship, London: Routledge.
Moore S., & Rosenthal, D., 1993, Sexuality in Adolescence, Routledge: London.
Moorehead, C,. 1989, Betrayal: Child Exploitation In Today’s World, London: Barrie & Jenkins.
Mowli, V.C., “Jogin”: Girl child labour studies, New Delhi: Sterling Publications Private Ltd.
Muecke, M.A., 1992, Mother Sold Food, Daughter Sells Her Body:The Cultural Continuity of Prostitution, in Social Science and Medicine, 35, (7) (891-901).
Muntabhorn, V., 1992, Sale of Children, Report submitted by the United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Sale of Children, New York: United Nations E/CN.4/1992/55.
Murray, A., 1991, No Money, No Honey: A Study of Street Traders and Prostitutes in Jakarta, Singapore: OUP.
Murray, C., 1990, Emerging British Underclass, London: IEA Health and Welfare Unit.
Narvesen, O., 1989, The Sexual Exploitation of Children in Developing Countries, Oslo: Redd Barna.
National Consultation on Adolescent Prostitution, 1984, Proceedings of the National Consultation on Adolescent Prostitution, Ottawa: Canada
National Film Board, (Canada). Street Kids. (Video) National Film Board: b&w.;, 22 min. 1985.
Nightingale, A., n.d., Adolescent Prostitution, The Menniger Foundation.
O’Connell Davidson, J., & Brace, L., 1996, Desperate Debtors and Counterfeit Love: The Hobbesian World of the Sex Tourist, Leicester: Leicester University Department of Sociology.
O’Dea, P., 1993, Gender exploitation and violence: the market in women, girls and sex in Nepal, Kathmandu: UNICEF.
Odzer, Cleo. Patpong Sisters: An American Woman’s View of the Bangkok Sex World. New York: Arcade Publ: Distributed by Little Brown and Co. 1994.
O’Grady, R., 1992, The Child and the Tourist, Bangkok: ECPAT.
O’Grady, R., 1994, The Rape of the Innocent, Bangkok: ECPAT.
Passmore-Sanderson, L., 1986, Female Genital Mutilation: An annotated bibliography, London: Anti Slavery Society.
Patkar, P., 1991, The girl child in red light areas, in Indian Journal of Social Work, LII (1) (71-80).
Pelzer, K., n.d., Children as commercial farm labourers and prostitutes in Africa, ANPPCAN Conference on Child Labour.
Peristiany, J.G. 1966, Honour and Shame: the values of Mediterranean Society, London.
Peristiany J G, and Pitt-Rivers J, Honor and Grace in Anthropology, CUP 1992
Pescatello, A., 1979, Female and male in Latin America, Pittsburgh: University of Pitsburgh Press; London: Fetter and Simons.
Phongpaichit, P., 1982, From Peasant Girls to Bangkok Masseuses, Geneva: International Labour Office.
Pleak, R.R., & Meyerbahlburg, H.F.L., 1990, Sexual-Behavior and Aids Knowledge of Young Male Prostitutes in Manhattan, in Journal Of Sex Research, 27, (4) (557-58).
Radford, J., King, A., & Warren, W., 1989, Street, Youth and AIDS, Kingston Ontario: Queen’s University.
Richards, M., 1996, When is puberty? Seminar paper, Centre for Family Research, University of Cambridge, May 1996.
Risaluddin, S., 1996, Moral and ethical concerns for the sexual health and safety of children: Islamic scriptural, traditional and cultural perspectives, paper for WCRP/UNICEF, March 1996, New York.
Rizzini, I., 1996, Street children: an excluded generation in Latin America, Childhood, 3 (2) (215-234).
Rosario, A. de, 1989, The Street Girls of Metro Manila,Vulnerable Victims of Today’s Silent Wars: A Situation Study on Street Girls, Manila: Childhope Asia.
Ross, F., 1995,Annotated Bibliography on childhood: outline, general findings and research recommendations, Dakar, CODESRIA.
Sachs, A., 1994, The Last Commodity :Child Prostitution in the Developing World, in World Watch, 7, (4) (24-30).
Salinlahi, Inc, Gabriela, Bahay Tuluyan and Family Ministries Program, n.d., Child Prostitution and Tourism, Philippines: unpublished manuscript.
Sancton, Thomas. “Preying On The Young: All Over the World, Boys and Girls Are Abused In A Vicious Sex Trade Now Abetted By Computer Networks. Time (Can. ed.), September 2, 2020, vol. 148 no. 11, p. 20-3.
Sawyer, R., 1988, Children Enslaved, London: Routledge.
Schaffer, B., & Deblassie, R.R., 1984, Adolescent Prostitution, in Adolescence, 19 (75) (689 696).
Scheper-Hughes, N., and Stein, H., 1987, Child Abuse and the Unconscious in American Popular Culture, in Schepper-Hughes, N. (ed.), Child Survival: anthropological perspectives on the treatment and maltreatment of children Dordrecht; Lancaster: Reidel
Sereny, G., 1984, The Invisible Children: Child Prostitution in America, West Germany and Great Britain, London: Andre Deutsch.
Sereny, Gitta. The Invisible Children: Child Prostitution in America, West Germany and Great Britain. New York: Knopf. Distributed by Random House, 1984.
Sittitrai, W., and Brown, T., 1994, The Impact of HIV on Children in Thailand, Bangkok: Thai Red Cross Society.
Snell, C. L., 1995, Young Men in the Street:Help-seeking behaviour of young male prostitutes, Westport, Connecticut and London: Praeger.
Srisang, Sudarat and Koson, n.d., Prostitution in Thailand: Products of Power Manipulation and Spiritual Bankruptcy, Bangkok: unpublished manuscript.
Stewart, F.H., 1994, Honor, London, University of Chicago Press.
Tate, T., 1991, Child pornography: an investigation, London: Methuen.
Thang, C.M., 1996, Vietnam Country Case Study, Hanoi: Draft report for Childwatch International Indicators for Children’s Rights Project.
Thorton, R., 1990, The New Homeless, London: SHAC.
Treguear, T. & Carro, C., 1994, Ninas y adolescentes prostituidas, San Jose, Costa Rica: UNICEF, Childhope, PRONICE.
Truong, T.D., 1982, The Dynamics of Sex Tourism, in Development and Change 14, (4 ) (533-553).
1986, Virtue, Order Health and Money: Towards a Comprehensive Perspective on Female Prostitution in Asi,. Bangkok: United Nations.
1990, Sex, Money and Morality, London: Zed Books.
Weisberg, D. K., 1985, Children of the Night: A Study of Adolescent Prostitution. Massachusetts: Lexington Books.
Widom, C.S., & Ames, M.A., 1994, Criminal Consequences of Childhood Sexual Victimisation. in Child Abuse & Neglect, 18 (4) (303-318)
Wolf. N., 1991, The Beauty Myth: How Images of Beauty are Used Against Women, Vintage: London
Reprinted with Permission